Now, the traits of a (true) discourser are being described :-
(1) He must be firm in Jaina-faith; for, if he himself is a misbeliever, how can he
make others true believer? The listeners by themselves possess less intellect, how
would he make them true believer through some logic? And the right belief only is
the basis of all religion.
(2) He should have developed the ability to deliver discourses on Shastras
through the study of scriptures because without attaining such ability how can he be
eligible for preachership?
(3) Through right knowledge, he should be able to discriminate the gist of all sorts
of empirical (Vyavahara)
and real (Nishchaya)
etc. forms of expositions;
for, if this be not there then if there be some description with some different
purpose, there he might draw some other meaning and become instrumental in wrong
(4) He should be very fearful of going against the omniscient's commandment because
if this be not so then bearing some purpose in mind he may preach against the
'Sutras' (Scripture) and create misery for Jivas. So is stated below :-
The one who possesses many virtues like forbearance, modesty, etc. and has knowledge
of grammar, etc. but is a perverse discourser (wrong-interpreter) he is worth
discarding. For instance, a snake though possessing costliest jewel, yet it is only
a source of trouble in the world.
(5) He must not have any desire of accomplishing the temporal acts like earning
livelihood, etc. by means of giving discourses on Shastras;
for, if he has
expectation then he can not preach (the truth) correctly; he simply makes it a
source of accomplishing his objective by giving lectures according to the desire of
some listeners. Moreover, the preacher's rank is higher than that of listeners; but,
if the preacher be greedy, then the preacher will himself become inferior and the
listeners will become superior.
(6) He should not have intense anger and pride, because the highly passioned (angry
& haughty) person will be criticized, the listeners will be fearful of him, then
how would they be benefitted by him?
(7) He should himself raise different questions and provide answers or if other
people raise questions many times in different ways, then through soft (sweet) words
he should clarify in such a way that their doubt is removed. In case he himself does
not have the capacity to answer rightly then he should say that he himself lacks
knowledge of it; for, if this be not so, the doubt of the listeners will not be
removed. How will then there be good of them? And the glorification of Jaina-faith
will also not be possible.
(8) He should not indulge in any immoral and publicly censurable activities, for he
would become a place of laughter due to indulgence in publicly censurable deeds; who
would then trust his words? He will bring bad name to Jaina faith.
(9) He should not be of low caste, not be a crippled fellow, not have hoarse voice,
be of sweet tongue, should be influential so that he may be acceptable to the people;
for, if it be not so then the orator's greatness will not be reflected in him. The
above qualities are essential in the discourser. The same is stated in
The one who is brilliant, has grasped the gist of all Shastras,
in public life, desire-free, lustrous, dispassionate and one who knows the answer
even before the question is raised, should have great forbearance for facing several
questions, be influential, could win the hearts of others because of being free from
the criticism of others as well as of his own by others, be store of virtues and
whose words are clear and sweet - such a leader of the congregation should deliver
Further, the special characteristic of a discourser is such that if he knows grammar,
logic, etc. and possesses deep knowledge of voluminous Jaina Shastras
his oratorship will be more glorious. Moreover, in spite of all these qualities, if
he has not acquired self-realisation through spiritual taste, then he is not likely
to know the spirit (essence) of Jina Dharma
(Omniscients' religion), he is a
discourser merely traditionally. How can he explain the characteristic of the true
which is full of spiritual taste ? Therefore, if he be an
then only he is a true preacher. In
also it is stated that Agama-Jnana
(faith in Jiva-Ajiva,
essential principles), Sanyarna Bhava
(continence) - these three if are
devoid of self-knowledge (Atma-Jnana),
they are ineffective. Further, in
it is stated that :-
"Oh Pandey ! Oh Pandey! Oh Pandey! you are leaving the grain thrashing the husk only.
You are satisfied in words and their literal meanings, but do not know the reality,
therefore, you are assuredly a fool".
Moreover, in fourteen types of learnings, the metaphysics (spiritual science) is
described as to be the supreme of all. Therefore, the discourser who is fond of the
taste of spiritual science should be known as the discourser of the mystery of
. Further, the discoursers who possess extra-ordinary intellectual
power and are possesed of clairvoyance, telepathy, omniscience are to be known as
the great preachers. Such should be known the distinctive traits of the discoursers.
So, if one gets the association of a discourser possessing these distinctive traits,
it is highly beneficial and if not obtained then one ought to listen the
from the mouth ofthose discoursers only who possess qualities of
right belief, etc. It is desirable to listen to the Shastras
from the mouth
(monks) and Shravakas
(householders) possessing such
characteristics and it is not worth listening the Shastras
with the greed of listening the Shastras
from the mouth of sinful persons,
who are not possessed of the right-belief, etc. traits. Also it is said that :-
The one who is attentive in obeying the omniscient's commandments, it is worthwhile
for him to listen to the sermons from (the mouth of) a Nirgrantha
possessionless) true preceptor monk or should listen to religious discourses from
the proper true believer Shravaka
(householder) who interpretes the sermons
of the true preceptor only.
Only such discourser, who preaches with religious attitude, can do good of the self
and of other Jivas
(capable souls) also, and one who preaches with passional
attitude, harms himself as well as other Jivas.